by Berthold Klein
Table of Contents
Section 1. Mixing the energy
Section 2. Chasing Photons
Section 3. What happens in an IRag molecule (or any compound molecule)?
Section 4. Quality of Sun light
Section 5. Dr. Alan Carlin of the US-EPA -No effect of CO2
Section 6. All sources of Photons:
Section 7. What is the magnitude of the heating?
Section 8. Measuring temperatures:
Section9. How much variation?
Section 10. The Demonstration
Eine kleine Nacht Hypotheses of IR and other EM radiation from the Sky at night
Section 7. What is the magnitude of the heating?
How much energy is delivered to earth by Solar Microwave radiation?
We all know that microwave radiation can heat things very rapidly and to very high temperatures. Almost every home in the US has a microwave oven in the kitchen or every college student’s dorm or every apartment. A microwave oven can heat a cup of water from ambient to 150 F in a minute or two. Microwave ovens are used to melt metals to refine them. What are the microwaves from the Sun doing to heat the planet?
Having just started to search for data on Solar microwaves we are lead to such fields as
Cosmology and space science ,we run across statements that certain frequencies of microwaves are “almost totally absorbed in the outer atmosphere yet we know that these same frequencies are used in communications or other earth related application.
In my search for information I find that “microwave ovens” are or were banned in Russia and a whole group of people are totally afraid of “microwave ovens”. Yes microwaves can kill people and animals. Are microwaves the cause of large “black Bird” kills that occur throughout the country and maybe the world? Will a flock that flies through the path of a beam of microwave communication between towers be OK but if their flight parallels the beam or is in the beam will their brains be cooked?
Knowing that water as a liquid and solid do absorb microwaves and heat (microwave ovens) and probably as a vapor (but at a much lower rate because of low density). It is claimed that there is a difference between the Microwaves as generated by a magnetron tube and natural microwaves because the magnetron is generated from an AC electrical power supply. This does not make sense as we are still dealing with a beam of photons with a measurable frequency and wavelength.
Section 8. Measuring temperatures
Do we know how much microwave energy is absorbed by all bodies of water/liquid/solid on the earth?
Do we know how much heating is caused by this absorption? Do we know how much heating of gases is caused by microwaves? If gases are heated (likely at least a little) is it equal to or greater than the imagined effect of IRags or is this heating actually the effect of Microwaves( photon absorption or collisions)?
As microwaves are used to measure earth and atmospheric temperatures ,(see below info from Roy Spencer) it appears that in addition to the IR that is radiated by all bodies above absolute zero temperature that all or most bodies also radiate microwaves including the O2 molecules of the atmosphere. This is going to be both a source of heating and cooling thus the photons of microwaves when inbound cause heating and when out bound there goes excess energy back into space.
When this is not accounted for by “scientists that have their heads in the “greenhouse gas box” or the “adiabatic lapse rate box “ maybe we will start getting some real answers and not fairy-tales.
“How the UAH Global Temperatures Are Produced”
January 6th, 2010 by Roy W. Spencer, Ph. D.
HOW MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS WORK
Microwave temperature sounders like AMSU measure the very low levels of thermal microwave radiation emitted by molecular oxygen in the 50 to 60 GHz oxygen absorption complex. This is somewhat analogous to infrared temperature sounders (for instance, the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder, AIRS, also on Aqua) which measure thermal emission by carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
As the instrument scans across the subtrack of the satellite, the radiometer’s antenna views thirty separate ‘footprints’, nominally 50 km in diameter, each over a 50 millisecond ‘integration time’. At these microwave frequencies, the intensity of thermally-emitted radiation measured by the instrument is directly proportional to the temperature of the oxygen molecules. The instrument actually measures a voltage, which is digitized by the radiometer and recorded as a certain number of digital counts. It is those digital counts which are recorded on board the spacecraft and then downlinked to satellite tracking stations in the Arctic.
HOW THE DATA ARE CALIBRATED TO TEMPERATURES
Now for the important part: How are these instrument digitized voltages calibrated in terms of temperature?
Once every Earth scan, the radiometer antenna looks at a “warm calibration target” inside the instrument whose temperature is continuously monitored with several platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs). PRTs work somewhat like a thermistor, but are more accurate and more stable. Each PRT has its own calibration curve based upon laboratory tests.
The temperature of the warm calibration target is allowed to float with the rest of the instrument, and it typically changes by several degrees during a single orbit, as the satellite travels in and out of sunlight. While this warm calibration point provides a radiometer digitized voltage measurement and the temperature that goes along with it, how do we use that information to determine what temperatures corresponds to the radiometer measurements when looking at the Earth?
A second calibration point is needed, at the cold end of the temperature scale. For that, the radiometer antenna is pointed at the cosmic background, which is assumed to radiate at 2.7 Kelvin degrees. These two calibration points are then used to interpolate to the Earth-viewing measurements, which then provides the calibrated “brightness temperatures”. This is illustrated in the following graph: [Graph or text missing here. - Ed]
The response of the AMSU is slightly non-linear, so the calibration curve in the above graph actually has slight curvature to it. Back when all we had were Microwave Sounding Units (MSU), we had to assume the instruments were linear due to a lack of sufficient pre-launch test data to determine their nonlinearity. Because of various radiometer-related and antenna-related factors, the absolute accuracy of the calibrated Earth-viewing temperatures are probably not much better than 1 deg. C. While this sounds like it would be unusable for climate monitoring, the important thing is that the instruments be very stable over time; an absolute accuracy error of this size is irrelevant for climate monitoring, as long as sufficient data are available from successive satellites so that the newer satellites can be calibrated to the older satellites’ measurements.
WHAT LAYERS OF THE ATMOSPHERE ARE MEASURED?
For AMSU channel 5 that we use for tropospheric temperature monitoring, that brightness temperature is very close to the vertically-averaged temperature through a fairly deep layer of the atmosphere. The vertical profiles of each channel’s relative sensitivity to temperature (‘weighting functions’) are shown in the following plot:
These weighting functions are for the nadir (straight-down) views of the instrument, and all increase in altitude as the instrument scans farther away from nadir. AMSU channel 5 is used for our middle tropospheric temperature (MT) estimate; we use a weighted difference between the various view angles of channel 5 to probe lower in the atmosphere, which a fairly sharp weighting function which is for our lower-tropospheric (LT) temperature estimate. We use AMSU channel 9 for monitoring of lower stratospheric (LS) temperatures.
For those channels whose weighting functions intersect the surface, a portion of the total measured microwave thermal emission signal comes from the surface. AMSU channels 1, 2, and 15 are considered “window” channels because the atmosphere is essentially clear, so virtually all of the measured microwave radiation comes from the surface. While this sounds like a good way to measure surface temperature, it turns out that the microwave ‘emissivity’ of the surface (it’s ability to emit microwave energy) is so variable that it is difficult to accurately measure surface temperatures using such measurements. The variable emissivity problem is the smallest for well-vegetated surfaces, and largest for snow-covered surfaces. While the microwave emissivity of the ocean surfaces around 50 GHz is more stable, it just happens to have a temperature dependence which almost exactly cancels out any sensitivity to surface temperature.
Section 9. How much variation?
How does the energy output of the Sun vary? We know that it increases with at least 2 known cycles an eleven year pattern and a 210 (approximately) year. Do we know if all frequencies follow the pattern? Based on the information about UV radiation increases over the last 400 years (referenced above) the output is not uniform. This is probably true of all frequencies. Thus if the UV increases does the IR also increase or does it decrease. Does the Microwaves frequencies increase or decrease when the overall output increases or decrease? I’m sure someone may know probably NASA or other space agencies, so why aren’t they speaking out to show how important these effect are?
The “greenhouse gas effect” has never been demonstrated why? Because the effect does not exist!
This is not the end of the search for knowledge it is only the very beginning. One thing I have learned is the more I learn the more there is to learn.
“The only thing more dangerous than ignorance is arrogance.” —Albert Einstein
There are many references in previous comments these are to be found throughout this Great Climate Clash.
Section 10. The Demonstration
Mann-made global warming is a hoax,because the “greenhouse gas effect” is a fairy -tale.
The Hypotheses (ghg effect) that failed and the experiment that demonstrates why the Hypotheses (ghg effect) fails!
Dear Dr. H. Lewis:
I am aware that you do not believe in the “greenhouse gas effect” We need an experiment that proves that the ghg effect does not exist. Would you please review the experiment that I have performed that I believe proves that the “ghg effect” does not exist. Review the logic and the math etc. I have shared this with several other physicists including Dr. Charles R. Andrson and Gerlich & Tscheuschner and others.. If you can find the time I’d appreciate your comments and your time.
Berthold Klein P.E.
The Hypotheses (ghg effect) that failed and the experiment that demonstrates why the Hypotheses (ghg effect) fails!
By Berthold Klein P.E November 16, 2010 revision 11-19-2010 revised 11-24-2010
The hypotheses of the “greenhouse gas effect” is the process where a combination of IR absorbing gases including Water/vapor/liquid/solid, CO2,CH4, NO2 and others are super insulation and cause the atmosphere to be 33 degrees warmer than would be explained by the “black body “temperature.
How is this done? The hypothesis says that the IRag’s absorb the IR radiation then it is “back radiated to earth causing the earth to be warmer by the resonating of this heat energy.
This is just the tip of the iceberg of the magic caused by the “greenhouse gas effect” as has been said the truth is in the detail.
As others have not started to define “The greenhouse gas effect” lets start with what are the “features that should be testable!” Because water/liquid, vapor,solid (H2O /lvs) is different than gases IRag’s as CO2 ,Ch4,NO2 and others -this will deal first with the non H2O ,IRags.
- The IRags absorb the IR radiation and thus prevents it from escaping into space reducing the rate of atmospheric cool- it causes the air to be warmer.
- The IRags will “back radiate” IR radiation to earth to cause increased heating of the surface.
- The IRags will heat up by the absorption of the IR radiation thus heating the air.
- The IRag’s have different levels of “back-forcing”. Having ask others how this is determined,( no answer yet) ,it is assumed that someone has reviewed the amount of IR that a particular molecule absorbs by a spectrophotometer analysis then comparing this to the absorption of CO2. (I have not seen any experimental data that the “back-forcing” relates to absorption).(an assumption based on The Bohr model however a time factor is needed)
- The higher the concentration of IRags the greater the amount of “back-radiation” the higher the “global atmospheric temperature will become.(were is the experimental data )
- The concentration of CO2 found in million year old Ice cores can be used as proof that the “ghg effect” exists. When there is no experimental data that proves that the “ghg effect”exists.
- Where does this lead?
We all know that the “greenhouse” effect exist. Anyone that has gotten into a hot car on a sunny day.(summer or winter). Has walked into a store with south facing window , its temperature will be much higher than a car ,or window in the shade. This is caused by confined space heating- this was established in 1909 by R.W. Wood a professor of Physics and Optics at John Hopkins University from 1901 to 1955.
What experiment could be performed to “prove” that the ”greenhouse gas effect exists.
All the AGW point out it is impossible to simulate what actually happens in the atmosphere therefore they propose using computer models, the problem with “computer models” is that unless all the factors that effect the atmosphere are included into the program it is “garbage in is garbage out”. When this is tried there are no computers made that have sufficient capacity to handle all of the factors. Many of the factors are not even fully know yet. Then the big guess is what are the factors to include and which are really of minor importance and can be left out and still get usable results. To data no one has come up with the “right model”
Using the list of “critical factor” lets see if there are some way of indicating if the concept may exist.
To use the concentration of IRags in the atmosphere for testing does not work otherwise there would not be the controversy that exists today. In the field of engineering and research there is the use of “models” that are either similar in behavior or can be proportioned to a larger or smaller series of events that relate to an actual set of events.
As the amount of heating that is supposed to be is on the order of fractions of a degree per year- we need a more dramatic experiment to show that the concept actually exists. If the experiment at a much higher concentration does not demonstrate the effect then the Concept does not exist. If the concept works at high concentration then it can be tried with lower and lower concentrations until a threshold of effects is reached.
Some numbers are needed now: By definition 10,000 ppm is 1%, therefore 100 % equals 1million parts per million( 1×10^+6) . The atmosphere is supposed to contain 400 ppm (round Number) therefore a concentration of 100% CO2 is 2500 time that of what is in the atmosphere. If the effect exists it should be much easier to measure and demonstrate.
Now it is claimed that CH4 is from 23 to 70 time the effect of CO2,thus using the lowers figure by using a concentration of 100 % CH4 ,the effect should be 57500 time stronger that using CO2. It is claimed that NO2 is 100 time more powerful that CO2 thus it should cause 250,000 X the effect of CO2 in the atmosphere
As CH4 is found to be about 2ppB ( 2 X 10^ -9)in the atmosphere , a concentration of 100 % CH4 should give a results that is 5 X 10^ + 10 times what exists in the atmosphere.
Now if CH4 is 23 times the effect of CO2 another longer chain hydrocarbon molecule will be even more powerful thus the proposed experiment shown below was done with 100 % butane.
The experiment shown below substituted “natural gas” a mixture of 70% CH4 about 29% CO2 and the remainder is H2 and other trace gases. This is readily available for test purposed from any natural gas stove. Now 100 % CO2 is available for several sources, but one that is not too expensive is from any Paint ball supply store, another is from a supplier of Dry ice. Do not use Alka Seltzer as you have to put this in water to get the CO2 thus you have a mixture of CO2 and water and water vapor – you are not testing the effect of CO2 only. Discussion of H2O/lvs in the atmosphere will follow later.
The natural gas mixture should have a combined effect of less that 100% CH4 by a weighted average of 70% CH4+ 29% CO2or 3.500000725X10+9 times the effect of CO2 in the atmosphere. If this occurs the temperature increase must be measurable.
How does the experiment contain the high concentration of the IRags for this test? Having reviewed several experiments that contained the IRags is glass containers then they measures the increase in temperature of the gas which had increased, they claimed this increase was do to the “ghg”effect, they are absolutely wrong. The cause of the temperature increase was do to the heating of the glass by its absorbing the IR and the glass heating. ( A Master’s thesis (peer reviewed) with this information is available on request). Another failure of these tests were their including a black cardboard inside the containers, thus additional heating of the IRag’s from conduction of heat from the black cardboard. (They created a Greenhouse effect-confined space heating)
The proper way to contain the high concentration of IRags is in a thin walled material that will not absorb the IR and heat. The experiment used crystal clear Mylar balloons. They are available in various sizes, several 20 inch diameter(major diameter) were chosen. If you want you can use larger ones to contain larger numbers of IRag molecules.
Now lets discuss the experiment.
- Fill the balloons with the various IRags ,and one with dry air as a control.
- Let the balloons reach ambient temperature. If you are going to use sunlight let it adjust outside in the shade.
- Use an IR thermometer to check the temperatures of each balloon, use a digital thermometer that reads to 0.1 degree to check air temperature in the shade. Record data.
- Take a large black mate board or a large black cloth or sheet and lay it on the ground in the sun. Use the IR thermometer to check the temperature as it raises in the sun. Record the data. When it appears to reach a maximum then go to step 5.
- Suspend the balloons over the black background (about 1 foot above) and measure the temperature of the balloons initially. Record the temperature.
- Measure the temperature of the black background in the “shadow” of each of the balloons also measure the temperature of the black background outside of the “shadows” of the balloons.
Now lets repeat the Critical factors and note the result of my test to the critical factor.
- The IRags absorb the IR radiation and thus prevents it from escaping into space reducing the rate of atmospheric cool- it causes the air to be warmer. The air between the balloons and the black background did not change temperature.
- The IRags will “back radiate” IR radiation to earth to cause increased heating of the surface. The black background did not change temperature either in the “shadow”of the ballons containing the high concentrations of IRags or outside the shadow. The temperature of the black background heated to 20 t0 30 degrees above ambient before the balloons were placed over the black background. When this was done outside in bright sun light the black background heated to 130 to 140 degrees F. Similar temperature can be measured from black asphalt. When the experiment was done with the 500 watt power shop light (see below)inside the black background went from ambient of 70-72 degrees to 100 -110 degrees. Again when measuring the temperatures of the black background with the IR thermometer there was no measurable temperature difference anywhere along the surface.
- The IRags will heat up by the absorption of the IR radiation thus heating the air. The balloons did not warn any warmer than ambient. The IRags in the balloons will not warm because that would be a violation of the Bohr Model.
- The IRag’s have different levels of “back-forcing”. Having ask others how this is determined,( no answer yet) ,it is assumed that someone has reviewed the amount of IR that a particular molecule absorbs by a spectrophotometer analysis then comparing this to the absorption of CO2. (I have not seen any experimental data that the “back-forcing” relates to absorption; an assumption based on The Bohr model however a time factor is needed.) As there was no temperature difference under any of the balloons, there was no stronger “back-forcing” because the IRag absorbed more IR radiation.
- The higher the concentration of IRags the greater the amount of “back-radiation” the higher the “global atmospheric temperature will become. (Were is the experimental data )
- The concentration of CO2 found in million year old Ice cores can be used as proof that the “ghg effect” exists. When there is no experimental data that proves that the “ghg effect”exists the “ice core data is meaningless..
Specifications of the IR thermometer: model: MTPRO laser-Micro Temp; temperature range: -41degree C/F to 1040 degrees F. IR range 5 to 16 nm. Angle of view D:S =11:1 cost about $60.00. many other models available.
I have thought about several refinements, but it would not change the bottom line that the “ghg effect” is a fairy-tale.
I’m sure that the AGW’s will not believe this proves that the “greenhouse gas effect does not exists , therefore I challenge them to come up with an experiment that they claim “proves the existence of the “greenhouse gas effect”.
As an alternate light source the experiment has been performed with an incandescent light. By using a 500 watt shop power light which because of the temperature of the filament approach the spectral characteristics of the Sun light ( should have more long wave IR because of a lower temperature) It was place one(1) meter away from the balloons to avoid conduction and convection heating of the balloons. As is stated above there was no difference in the final results.
Now let’s talk about water( H2O/lvs):
Yes H2O/lvs has a major effect on weather conditions, where I’m at in Northern Ohio it just started to rain, if it gets any colder we will have snow or sleet. Of course tomorrow it may be sunny and clear. As is said in the Great Lakes region if you don’t like the weather wait 15 minutes and it will change. Now the “climate” has not changed for the last 300 years just as the Indians.
Any way lets look a H2O/lvs in the atmosphere : If its clear the humidity can be from near 0 % relative humidity to 100%. Now if it ‘s cloudy the “relative Humidity” can vary from 30 to 100% depending on temperatures, Now we know that the air temperature where the clouds are forming is at or below the “dew point”, now as the H2O vapor cools to form clouds there is a release of energy( Heat of condensation), if the general air temperature is low enough ( below freezing) more energy is released as ice or snow is formed. This energy has to be dissipated either as IR radiation or as lightening or probably high winds or tornado.
This is only one phase of the complex weather conditions when H2O/lvs is being evaluated another is the solar heating of clouds both day and night. During the day the warming of the top of clouds is obvious but it is also relevant that in spite of significant solar absorption the “clouds “ have not absorbed enough radiation to convert the water or solids back to vapor; there is probably a rapid turbulent exchange of energy in both directions from evaporation/ sublimation to condensing, to freezing. This is why “climatologists” can not get the correct “sign” on the “forcing” it is a constantly changing set of conditions, non are wrong and non are correct.
Now lets add the next variable- solar heating at night of the clouds. Having taken IR radiation measurements at night for the last year at many different times by solar time it is apparent that when the sun goes down below the visible horizon , the clouds are still receiving solar energy. This has been confirmed by both measurements and visible lighting (multiple colors ) of the clouds. The clouds and the atmosphere cool until about 2:00 am when there is measurable increases in cloud temperatures and air temperatures. This warming continues until daylight is visible. The degree of warming is related to the time of year and what is happening with the jet stream and arctic storms.
There are other factors that are being monitored by real astrophysics researcher that are showing that Solar flares, and different type of radiation have an effect on cloud formation,this is only a beginning of learning about our atmosphere.
There is no way in the world of Fairy-tales that CO2 can have an effect on weather or “climate”
The nice thing about this experiment is that it can be done by high school physics classes or freshmen college physics lab classes . It would teach a very important lesson in that “not all experiments have to have a “positive” end result to be meaningful.
Mann-made global warming is a hoax,because the “greenhouse gas effect” is a fairy-tale.
Berthold Klein P.E.
November 19, 2010
Appendix. Eine kleine Nacht Hypotheses of IR and other EM radiation from the Sky at night.
Solar radiation is impacting the planet continuously the only reason we have night is because the planet is rotating thus part of the surface does not receive direct radiation after 9:00 solar time.
Due to the fact that the planet rotates on an axes that is inclined to the path around the sun in the summer the north pole will receive “light” for 24 hours a day. Most of this is direct light but after midnight much is due to refraction in the atmosphere.
Now let’s look at the rest of the planet. While the surface does not receive Solar radiation 24/7 the atmosphere does. Obviously the atmosphere is many miles greater in diameter than the planet, and it is still receiving “light” after the ground directly below the Sun is in the shade.
As the “light” both visible and IR and other EM are refracted by the atmosphere (See Albert Einstein’s Why the Sky is Blue” some will be sent into space and some will be directed to the surface. The “light” will strike the surface at various distances passed the visible horizon because of the various wavelengths of EM radiation. There are probably bands of this radiation striking the surface. If the radiation is IR and other EM radiation it will heat the surfaces that it is absorbed by or reflected it can heat other surface that it strikes.
The bands of radiation are probably poorly defined because clouds cause absorption , reflection and refraction that will scatter the IR and other EM radiation As clouds are a heat “sink” of energy they can radiate IR as the contents of the ”cloud” change phases from liquid to ICE or absorb IR and go back to liquid or gas. While one side of a cloud could be heating at the same time the other “side” could be cooling. A very complex set of physics and thermodynamic phenomenon.
Now let’s talk about measuring IR at night- it is coming from everywhere. Plants are obviously living things therefore they are producing IR from both oxidation and by radiation as “hot bodies” Any structure or thing is radiating both Hot body and radiators from the contents.
By using a hand held IR thermometer it is possible to measure incoming IR from the ”sky”. As the thermometer is calibrated in temperature units degrees C or F it would be necessary to convert them to units of energy/area to be most accurate.
Observations have shown that aiming the IR thermometer vertically up perpendicular to the surface the lowest readings are obtained. As temperature readings of -19 F have been shown usually after midnight on a very clear sky with atmospheric temperature in the 70’s F. Just above the horizon to avoid including ground vegetation the reading can be in the + 30’s. When measuring on a cold winter night when air temperature at the ground was 3 F, the IR sky reading was -70F. When measuring reflection and radiation from clouds in warm weather- reading in the 50’s and 60’s can be observed. Obviously if you can see the clouds you are getting visible light as well as IR and other EM radiation.
Direct reading of the sky where there are no clouds will vary greatly –if the sky is very dark blue the reading are very low. If the sky has some thin clouds and are various colors at sundown the temperatures can be in the 50’s or 60’s.
IR and other EM radiation are present in the atmosphere at all times. The source can be from many different items including refracted, reflected, radiated and generated. This has been happening as long as we have an atmosphere. Even late at night when the surface is opposite the sun there could be” Sun Light” IR and other EM radiation reaching the surface by refraction and reflection.